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振動盤在機械設備中起到什么作用

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機械(xie)振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)是物體(ti)(或物體(ti)的(de)一部(bu)分(fen)(fen))在(zai)(zai)平衡位置(zhi)(物體(ti)靜止時(shi)的(de)位置(zhi))附(fu)近作的(de)往復運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。可(ke)分(fen)(fen)為 自由振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)、受迫振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。又可(ke)分(fen)(fen)為無阻尼振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)與 阻尼振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。常見的(de)簡諧運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)有(you)彈簧振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)子模(mo)型(xing)(xing)、單擺模(mo)型(xing)(xing)等。振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)在(zai)(zai)機械(xie)行業中(zhong)的(de)應用

   振動在(zai)機(ji)械中的(de)(de)(de)(de)應用非常普遍,例如在(zai)振動篩分行業(ye)中基本原(yuan)理系借電(dian)機(ji)軸上(shang)下端(duan)所安裝的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)錘(chui)(不平(ping)(ping)蘅(heng)重(zhong)(zhong)錘(chui)),將(jiang)電(dian)機(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)旋轉運動轉變(bian)為水平(ping)(ping)、垂(chui)直(zhi)、傾斜的(de)(de)(de)(de)三次元運動,再(zai)把(ba)這個運動傳達(da)給(gei)篩面。若改變(bian)上(shang)下部(bu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)錘(chui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相位角可改變(bian)原(yuan)料(liao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行進方向。

   拋(pao)體(ti)(ti)運(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)則可(ke)以分解為(wei):正交(jiao)的一(yi)個勻(yun)速(su)直線運(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)和另一(yi)個勻(yun)變速(su)直線運(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong),所以,拋(pao)體(ti)(ti)運(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)比(bi)勻(yun)變速(su)直線運(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)復雜得多。

   在勻速(su)圓周(zhou)運動(dong)(dong)作正交(jiao)分解[1]的過程中,原來大(da)小不變(bian)的向(xiang)心力(li)(li),變(bian)成大(da)小和方向(xiang)都作周(zhou)期(qi)性變(bian)化的回復力(li)(li)。簡(jian)諧振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)已經夠(gou)復雜了。所以(yi),振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)就(jiu)定(ding)量研(yan)究到(dao)簡(jian)諧振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)為止。然(ran)而通(tong)常(chang)我們遇(yu)到(dao)的振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)的微(wei)觀情況(kuang),都要比簡(jian)諧振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)復雜得多。所以(yi),研(yan)究簡(jian)諧振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)過渡到(dao)研(yan)究振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)、熱振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)等,需(xu)要洞察力(li)(li)、想(xiang)象(xiang)力(li)(li)和抽象(xiang)思維、邏(luo)輯推理等能力(li)(li)。

   參照物(wu)本來就(jiu)應該(gai)是在(zai)(zai)研究(jiu)過程中保持靜止(或假定(ding)為靜止)的(de)(de)點(dian)(dian)(dian),我們(men)的(de)(de)物(wu)理(li)思路,就(jiu)是"從(cong)確(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)量(liang)、不(bu)變(bian)的(de)(de)量(liang)出發進(jin)行研究(jiu)"。確(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)量(liang)和(he)不(bu)變(bian)的(de)(de)量(liang)有(you)本質的(de)(de)區別,在(zai)(zai)對勻變(bian)速直線運(yun)(yun)動(dong)和(he)拋體運(yun)(yun)動(dong)進(jin)行研究(jiu)時,基準點(dian)(dian)(dian)選擇在(zai)(zai)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)的(de)(de)始點(dian)(dian)(dian)。這是確(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)量(liang),卻不(bu)一定(ding)是不(bu)變(bian)的(de)(de)量(liang)。特(te)別在(zai)(zai)我們(men)進(jin)行分段研究(jiu)時,每(mei)一階段的(de)(de)終點(dian)(dian)(dian),就(jiu)是下一階段的(de)(de)始點(dian)(dian)(dian)。

   我們選擇運(yun)動(dong)的(de)始點(dian)(dian)為(wei)(wei)基(ji)準(zhun)點(dian)(dian),可以簡化研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)過程(cheng),這是服(fu)從(cong)于(yu)物理研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)"化繁為(wei)(wei)簡"的(de)原則(ze)(ze),因(yin)此,不惜在不同的(de)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)階段,選擇不同的(de)基(ji)準(zhun)點(dian)(dian)。在研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)勻速圓(yuan)周(zhou)運(yun)動(dong)和簡諧振動(dong)時,由于(yu)宏觀上的(de)周(zhou)期性(xing)和微(wei)觀上的(de)拓(tuo)樸性(xing),問題很復雜,所以不能選運(yun)動(dong)的(de)始點(dian)(dian),作基(ji)準(zhun)點(dian)(dian)進行(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),而要選擇確(que)定而且不變的(de)圓(yuan)心(xin)或(huo)者(zhe)平衡位置,作基(ji)準(zhun)點(dian)(dian)進行(xing)研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu),也(ye)是服(fu)從(cong)于(yu)物理研(yan)究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)"化繁為(wei)(wei)簡"的(de)原則(ze)(ze)。      

   廣義(yi)上(shang)的(de)(de)振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)從廣義(yi)上(shang)說振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)是(shi)指(zhi)描(miao)述系(xi)(xi)統狀態的(de)(de)參(can)量(如位移、電(dian)壓)在(zai)其基準值上(shang)下交替變化的(de)(de)過(guo)程。狹義(yi)的(de)(de)指(zhi)機械(xie)振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong),即力(li)學系(xi)(xi)統中(zhong)的(de)(de)振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)。電(dian)磁振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)習慣上(shang)稱(cheng)為(wei)振(zhen)蕩(dang)。力(li)學系(xi)(xi)統能(neng)維持振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong),必須具(ju)有彈(dan)性(xing)和慣性(xing)。由于(yu)彈(dan)性(xing),系(xi)(xi)統偏離(li)其平衡(heng)(heng)位置(zhi)時,會產生(sheng)回復力(li),促使(shi)系(xi)(xi)統返回原來位置(zhi);由于(yu)慣性(xing),系(xi)(xi)統在(zai)返回平衡(heng)(heng)位置(zhi)的(de)(de)過(guo)程中(zhong)積累了動(dong)(dong)(dong)能(neng),從而使(shi)系(xi)(xi)統越過(guo)平衡(heng)(heng)位置(zhi)向另一側運動(dong)(dong)(dong)。正(zheng)是(shi)由于(yu)彈(dan)性(xing)和慣性(xing)的(de)(de)相(xiang)互影響,才(cai)造成系(xi)(xi)統的(de)(de)振(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)。

       按系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)運動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)自(zi)(zi)由度分,有(you)單自(zi)(zi)由度系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(如鐘擺的(de)(de)(de)振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong))和(he)(he)多(duo)自(zi)(zi)由度系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。有(you)限多(duo)自(zi)(zi)由度系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)與離散系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)相對(dui)應(ying)(ying),其振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)由常微分方程描述;無限多(duo)自(zi)(zi)由度系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)與連續系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)(如桿、梁(liang)、板(ban)、殼(ke)等)相對(dui)應(ying)(ying),其振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)由偏微分方程描述。方程中(zhong)不顯含(han)(han)時間的(de)(de)(de)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)稱自(zi)(zi)治系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong);顯含(han)(han)時間的(de)(de)(de)稱非自(zi)(zi)治系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)。按系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)受力情(qing)況分,有(you)自(zi)(zi)由振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)、衰減振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)受迫振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。按彈性力和(he)(he)阻尼力性質分,有(you)線性振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)非線性振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)。振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)又可分為確定性振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)隨機(ji)振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),后者(zhe)無確定性規(gui)律,如車輛行進中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)顛簸。振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)是自(zi)(zi)然界和(he)(he)工程界常見(jian)的(de)(de)(de)現象(xiang)。振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)消極(ji)方面是:影響儀(yi)器(qi)設備功能(neng),降低(di)機(ji)械設備的(de)(de)(de)工作精度,加劇(ju)構件磨(mo)損(sun),甚至(zhi)引起結構疲勞破壞;振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)積極(ji)方面是:有(you)許多(duo)需利(li)用振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)設備和(he)(he)工藝(yi)(如振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)傳輸、振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)研磨(mo)、振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)沉樁等)。振(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)分析(xi)的(de)(de)(de)基本任務是討論系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)激勵(即輸入,指(zhi)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)外來擾(rao)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong),又稱干(gan)擾(rao))、響應(ying)(ying)(即輸出,指(zhi)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)受激勵后的(de)(de)(de)反應(ying)(ying))和(he)(he)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)統(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)態特性(或(huo)物理參(can)數)三者(zhe)之間的(de)(de)(de)關系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)。


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